A house and a manifesto: E.B. Lamb’s Fawkham Manor

Word reached me at the end of last month of an exciting new addition to the National Heritage List, Historic England’s register of all the listed sites nationwide. On 26th November 2020, Fawkham Manor of 1866-1867 near Brands Hatch in northwest Kent became a Grade II-listed building. Far more than the date makes it of interest to this blog: Fawkham Manor is an important work by a singular architect who produced some wildly original buildings, the inimitable Edward Buckton Lamb (1805-1869).

Fawkham Manor: view from northwest
Fawkham Manor: the northeast-facing garden front

We have already encountered the term ‘rogue architect’ here in my previous posts on John Croft and on E. Bassett Keeling. In those I said a few words about why it can sometimes be rather problematic, the reason essentially being that subsequent commentators have interpreted it in a manner arguably not intended by its progenitor, H.S. Goodhart-Rendel, and applied it to figures not mentioned in his lecture of 1949, ‘Rogue Architects of the Victorian Era’, for which it was first coined. But in the case of E.B. Lamb, no such reservations need arise. He was the first architect to be covered that evening and Goodhart-Rendel discusses his output at length, rhapsodising about its innovative and eccentric nature, and emphasising that it was regarded as beyond the pale even by some of Lamb’s contemporaries.

Fawkham Manor: angled oriel at the junction of one of the elevations overlooking the garden and the service front
Stained glass in what is now the vestry of St Margaret’s in Leiston, Suffolk: 1854, the date on the scroll intertwined with the dividers, is when Lamb’s rebuilding of this church was completed. In the lobe of the quatrefoil to the left is his coat of arms, while that to the right contains a monogram formed of his three initials.

Fawkham Manor is especially interesting because it was intended to be Lamb’s own house – intended to be, but never inhabited as such, since the expense of the project bankrupted its creator and it was put up for sale before, in all likelihood, the interior had been completed. The background to and subsequent fate of the house are very well recounted in the excellent list description (the entry for a building on the National Heritage List, which sets out its history, describes its form, function and style, and explains why it was granted statutory protection) and I refer to that anyone interested in learning more.

Fawkham Manor: the rear entrance on the service side of the building – the large dormer with the striped, tile-hung cheek is a later addition.
Fawkham Manor: the former service range – the lantern may originally have provided ventilation for the kitchen.

Unless it is destroyed or altered beyond recognition, it is rare for a building to be completely ‘lost’ and Fawkham Manor had, so to speak, been hiding in plain sight, since it is mentioned with a date and attribution – albeit briefly – by John Newman in the ‘Kent: West and the Weald’ volume of The Buildings of England. But Victorian architecture is all too often passed over in a county better known for its medieval heritage, and there was a clear antiquarian bias on the part of the inspectors who compiled the first list for Kent in the 1950s-1960s and then revised and expanded it in the 1980s. Nineteenth or 20th century buildings that were too visible or too celebrated to ignore got their due, but a great deal was omitted. Besides, Fawkham Manor, being tucked away in a remote, wooded setting on the side of a valley and latterly in institutional use, was all too easy to overlook.

Before E.B. Lamb was E.B. Lamb, I: west elevation of the church of St Philip’s, Granville Square in Clerkenwell, the architect’s earliest church, designed in 1829, when he was aged just 24, built in 1831-1832 and demolished in 1938 after developing structural problems. A typical late Georgian Gothick preaching box, it prompted Goodhart-Rendel to remark, ‘Considering what they were to produce afterwards, Lamb’s powers as an architect developed late’.

Fortunately, given the possibilities offered by the internet to carry out exploration and research without leaving home, such risks these days are greatly reduced. A Google image search returned some tantalising photos which left me in no doubt that an expedition to see Fawkham Manor for myself was in order, and I visited with my camera last Saturday afternoon. The overcast, drizzly weather may not have showed off the building to best effect, but the architecture delighted and intrigued me. I hope what you see in my pictures here will delight and intrigue you as well. Seeing inside was not possible, since the private hospital that latterly occupied the house closed in 2019 and the site is currently being looked after by a security firm pending a decision on its future.

St Stephen’s, Aldwark, North Yorkshire: built in 1851-1853 and the church where Lamb’s trademark centralised design combining both cross-in-square and cruciform plans – repeated on a much larger scale at St Martin’s, Gospel Oak and St Mary Magdalene, Addiscombe near Croydon (1868-1869) – was first tried out. Lamb specialist Edward Kaufman described this building in The Faber Guide to Victorian Churches as one of the architect’s most important works, praising ‘the mysterious quality of this small but intricate space, part axial and part centralised, humble and low-roofed, yet full of flickering light and Gothic wonder’. (Chris Stafford)
General view and plan of St Martin’s, Gospel Oak, London as published in The Builder of 20th October 1866, around the time the church was completed: ‘a completely original, and, I think, almost perfect solution of what a large auditorium for Protestant services should be’, H.S. Goodhart Rendel, ‘Rogue Architects of the Victorian Era’.

Pity the architect designing a house for himself. On the one hand, it is a private residence, where he is free to do as he pleases. On the other, by that same token, he may feel under pressure to make it the purest example of his work, since he is under no obligation to make compromises to suit the wishes of a client and can use it to advertise his aesthetic credo. That is a responsibility that can weigh heavily on his shoulders and I have much sympathy with an architect of my acquaintance who protested that ‘My house is not my manifesto’. But that was not the case with Lamb. While his reputation for bold invention has tended to be most closely associated with his ecclesiastical output – Goodhart-Rendel describes enthusiastically his ingenious solutions for reconciling a medievalising language of form with the requirement in a modern Protestant church to seat as many worshippers as possible within sight and earshot of the preacher – domestic work seems to have brought out an even more wilful streak in him. As Goodhart-Rendel puts it, ‘In his churches he had reason to innovate: he wished to evolve an unprecedented type of plan which the customary proportions of Gothic would not fit. In his secular buildings he innovated without necessity just because he liked doing it’.

The east-facing elevation to Broad Street of the town hall of Eye in Suffolk, built in 1857 – like Fawkham Manor, an extravaganza of flint and patterned brickwork distantly inspired by local vernacular traditions. The base of the tower shelters the porch and there was formerly a lock-up on one of its upper storeys, while the ground floor of the adjoining wing originally housed a library.
The west-facing elevation to Cross Street of Eye town hall showing the principal volume, which originally housed the corn hall.

But evaluating this part of Lamb’s output is far harder. His public buildings, such as the town halls at Eye in Suffolk (1857) and Berkhamsted in Hertfordshire (1859) are well known. That they are strongly individual is not in doubt, but this is because they have survived well and can easily be assessed against counterparts of the same period. With domestic buildings, however, one is on much shakier ground. That it was important in Lamb’s output is clear enough. Early on in his career, he provided numerous designs for the Encyclopaedia of Cottage, Farm and Villa Architecture (first published 1833, expanded and revised second edition 1842) by landscape-gardener John Claudius Loudon (1783-1843), Loudon himself lacking an architectural training. Subsequently, he built up an extensive network of connections with landed aristocrats, but although that produced commissions for domestic work, for the most part it has attracted far less interest from architectural historians than his churches. The sole exception is Hughenden Manor outside High Wycombe in Buckinghamshire, which he remodelled in 1862-1863. Though characteristic and distinctive, its form still betrays its Georgian origins, and it is probably fair to say that the house owes the attention that it has attracted principally to the fame of the client, one Benjamin Disraeli. As Mark Girouard remarks in his biographical note on Lamb in The Victorian Country House, which includes a useful chronological list of works, ‘The large country house practice of this individual and independent architect remains unexplored’.

Before E.B. Lamb was E.B. Lamb, II: Hrádek u Nechanic, Hradec Králové Region, Czech Republic: designed 1839, executed 1839-1857 by Karl Fischer. In the context of the houses discussed here, it is interesting primarily as an indication of the kind of architectural milieu from which Lamb emerged. Like S.S. Teulon, he was schooled in the traditions of the late Georgian Gothic Revivalists and his idiosyncratic brand of High Victorianism took time to develop. (Wikipedia Commons)
Hughenden Manor, Buckinghamshire (originally Georgian, remodelled by E.B. Lamb in 1862-1863): the garden front (Hans A. Rosbach, Wikipedia Commons)

That was written in the 1970s and, as far as I am aware, the only person since then to have picked up the gauntlet was Edward Kaufman in his essay of 1988, ‘E.B. Lamb: A Case Study in Victorian Architectural Patronage’ (published in The Art Bulletin, Vol. 70, No 2). As Kaufman shows, for the most part Lamb’s country house work consisted of remodelling and enlarging existing, often relatively modest properties, his clients’ means seldom running to anything more ambitious. According to Kaufman, during the course of his career Lamb designed only three completely new country houses. That total, it should be noted, excludes Hrádek u Nechanic of 1839-1857 in the Hradec Králové region of the Czech Republic: though the design was indeed originally the work of Lamb, it may well owe more to the executive architect, one Karl Fischer, and in any case the relatively tame neo-Tudor manner is fairly generic for its date.

Aldwark Manor, North Yorkshire (1862-1864): the entrance front around the time of the completion of building work (Historic England)
Aldwark Manor: the entrance front today (© Copyright Paul P. Buckingham and licensed for reuse under a Creative Commons Licence)

Not only did Lamb rarely get a chance to show his mettle in country house design, his major commissions, unlike his ecclesiastical work, proved to be sadly ill-fated. All architecture is vulnerable during the perilous period, well explained by Laver’s Law of Fashion, when it has gone out of vogue and has yet to be reassessed and accorded a place in the canon. This was especially the case with Victorian country houses. Those whose architecture required a strong stomach were found positively indigestible by the inter-war years and many were ‘de-Victorianised’ – that is to say, toned down through the removal or simplification of ornament and detail. Others, having become too big to be manageable, were cut down in size, and the situation was exacerbated by the pressures on landed estates from death duties, falls in rents from tenant farmers, and the damage done by military use during World War II. Aldwark Manor in North Yorkshire of 1862-1864, an exuberant essay in muscular Gothic to rival the most outlandish of Lamb’s churches, was altered almost out of recognition in a late and rather weak Arts and Crafts-style remodelling carried out, I would guess, in the 1920s (other buildings by Lamb on the estate seem to have fared better). The enormous wing with its restless, vividly modelled wall surfaces that Lamb added in c. 1864 to Nun Appleton Hall in the same county was demolished in c. 1946 when that house was returned to its original proportions.

Aldwark Manor, North Yorkshire (1862-1864): the garden front around the time of the completion of building work (Historic England)
Nun Appleton Hall, North Yorkshire: the north-facing entrance front, showing E.B. Lamb’s now demolished wing of c. 1863 to the right. The porch to the main entrance – which was relocated from the south side to this side during the remodelling in order to allow the pleasure grounds to be kept entirely secluded – was also his work. (Historic England)

All this makes Fawkham Manor an even more precious survival. Its architecture points to so many interesting potential lines of development that one can only regret that Lamb did not live longer and design more houses. But we can at least be grateful that even if he had to risk everything to bring it into being – was it stress of being bankrupted by the construction costs that resulted in his premature death? – Lamb was able to produce for himself a pure statement of his unique, compelling architectural vision.

The wing added by Lamb to Nun Appleton, as illustrated in The Builder of 12th March 1864: the woodcut conveys well the extraordinary sculptural modelling of the wall surfaces. Yet despite the outlandish nature of the forms, the lengthy report on the house which it accompanies – probably written by Lamb himself – stresses that much thought had been given to the visual relation of the new wing to the existing fabric and that, since Gothic had been explicitly rejected, ‘it was therefore determined that with the splendid bricks made on the estate – square, and moulded in various forms – an attempt should be made to apply these materials in such a manner as would be consistent with their nature and convenience of construction, and such pictorial effects as with mere outline and light and shade could be produced. Gothic character – or rather the picturesque effect of the harmonious arrangement of numerous parts both in form and material – with also the harmony of construction, would in some degree produce that charm which renders Gothic architecture so generally popular’.
Plan of Nun Appleton, as reproduced in The Builder of 12th March 1864: it is shown upside down in relation to the view of the entrance front above – that is to say that the older portion of the house is to the right, rather than the left. The junction between the two phases is indicated by the red line. The plan reveals that Lamb’s addition housed a new dining room, staircase, gentleman’s room and room for Sir William [Milner], but otherwise was principally a service wing. The report states that the previous service wing was the result of a long series of piecemeal alterations, which had resulted in a very inconvenient layout, to say nothing of its poor condition, so ‘that nothing short of rebuilding and remodelling could effect a cure of the several evils’.

Contrary to popular misconception, listed status provides few guarantees where the upkeep of a building is concerned: that remains the responsibility of the owner and the mechanisms in law for taking action against negligent owners are now rarely exercised. Residential conversion has been mooted for Fawkham Manor. Given that the interior is of relatively limited interest, this has the potential to be a good solution although much depends on the sensitivity of the developer and architect, and it is an open question whether the venture will be viable in an uncertain economic climate. Still, whatever the future of the site, a major victory has been won by securing statutory protection for the house and ensuring that any decision on its future must take its historical and architectural significance into account. So thank you, Historic England, but your job is not yet done. Please now go back and assess the residential property hiding behind a hedge just across the road that looks from map evidence and a photo of c. 1960 like it may be the manor’s former service block!

St Stephen’s, Aldwark, North Yorkshire (1851-1853): ‘one of the most striking examples of mid-Victorian constructional polychromy, a technique initiated by William Butterfield [at All Saints, Margaret Street] in 1849. At Aldwark, Lamb radically reinterprets Butterfield’s innovation, replacing his smooth, hard materials with handmade bricks and rounded cobbles straight from the river bed’, Edward Kaufman, The Faber Guide to Victorian Churches. A similar technique and love of differing textures and natural colours is in evidence at Fawkham Manor. (Roy Macintyre)

Published by Edmund Harris

Heritage professional and architectural historian residing in Suffolk. All views expressed here are my own and do not represent my employer.

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