William Eden Nesfield (1835–1888)

The subject of my first post is someone who, if not exactly obscure, nonetheless is very much a connoisseur’s architect. W. Eden Nesfield (as he tended to call himself) was born into an affluent old Durham family. His father, William Andrews Nesfield (1793-1881), was a veteran of the Peninsula War who subsequently became a water colourist and landscape garden designer, working in the latter capacity for numerous prestigious clients – the terraces at Holkham Hall, for instance, are partly his work.

Barclays Bank (originally Gibson, Tuke and Gibson, now Barclays) on the east side of Market Place, Saffron Walden, 1873-1874
William Eden Nesfield, portait by Sir William Blake Richmond (1842-1921), pencil and chalk, c. 1865 (National Portrait Gallery)

William Nesfield the younger was sent to Eton and then at the age of 15 articled to William Burn (1789-1870), a prolific architect active throughout England, Scotland and Ireland, who specialised in country houses. One of this most spectacular surviving works, the amazing Jacobean gatehouse of Eastwell, is only a short drive from Canterbury. Though it gave him a useful professional grounding, the pupillage was not a success and, after two years, Nesfield left Burn’s office for that of Anthony Salvin (1799-1881), the husband of his paternal aunt. He, too, was a prolific designer of country houses and was responsible for the astonishing Peckforton Castle in Cheshire, built in 1844-1852 in hilly country outside Chester and a vivid evocation of the Edwardian castles further to the west along the north Wales coast.

Tower Lodge of Eastwell in Kent by William Burn, 1848
Peckforton Castle, Cheshire by Anthony Salvin, 1844-1852

Though the period in Burn’s office may have been unhappy, it had a major bearing on Nesfield’s career by bringing him into contact with another pupil there, Richard Norman Shaw (1831-1912), with whom he travelled extensively. They were both eager to see for themselves the most celebrated new works of the Gothic Revival – predictably enough, but their interests developed in a less expected direction in that they were no less taken by the vernacular architecture of southeast England, which they sketched extensively.

Plas Dinam in Llandinam, Powys, Wales, 1873-1874: detail of the entrance front
The lodge and main drive at Cloverley Hall in Shropshire: one of Nesfield’s most important commissions, this house was built in 1864-1870 for the Liverpool millionnaire banker John Pemberton Heywood.

Tudorbethan piles with fake timbering and leaded lights are so much part of the architectural currency of the 20th and, indeed, early 21st centuries, that it now takes an effort of imagination to appreciate how radical a departure it was back then for architects to turn to such sources for inspiration. In the mid-19th century a country house might take any kind of a wide range of stylistic garb. It might be neo-Jacobean, Scottish baronial, a Gothic castle, an Italianate villa, a classical mansion, might even have touches of something exotic and orientalising, but not vernacular. That was the stuff of the cottage orné, a picturesque accent to be admired in a carefully composed view from the Big House, but not actually inhabited. As Andrew Saint writes in his overview of the architect’s life in A Deuce of an Uproar, ‘If we knew nothing of Nesfield’s life and had only his buildings, he would still rank in the forefront of Victorian architects, as a consummate designer, draughtsman and ornamentalist, and as one of three or four individuals who transformed the whole feeling and destiny of the larger English house in the ‘60s and ‘70s of the [nineteenth] century’.

Plas Dinam in Llandinam, Powys, Wales, 1873-1874: the garden front
The tower that formerly housed the dovecote, game larder and gun room at Cloverley Hall in Shropshire: the extensive service range survived largely unscathed the drastic reduction in size and remodelling of the main house in 1926-1927. As pointed out in the Shropshire volume of The Buildings of England, the design of this tower is cribbed from an illustration in a study by Viollet-le-Duc of medieval castles.
The garden front at Cloverley Hall as pictured in A History of the Gothic Revival by Charles Eastlake, who said of it, ‘To describe a modern building by the general remark that its style can be properly referred to no precise period in the history of styles, would, not many years ago, have been equivalent to pronouncing its condemnation, and even at the present time there are but few designers who can depart from recognised canons of taste without arriving at a result more original than satisfactory. But in this admirable work Mr. Nesfield has succeeded in realising the true spirit of old-world art, without hampering himself by those nice considerations of date and stereotyped conditions of form which in the last generation were sometimes valued more highly than the display of inventive power’. Note the tower of the service court illustrated in the picture above visible to the right of the main building.

For a while, Nesfield and Shaw worked closely together and in 1866-1869 were in formal partnership. But by the end of the decade, they were starting to drift apart. Shaw was a shrewd businessman, ambitious, industrious, clever at self-promotion and establishing and cultivating relations with clients. Though country houses loomed large in his output, he handled a very diverse range of commissions, taking office buildings, schools, garden suburbs and new churches in his stride. He ran a large practice and shaped numerous protégés who in turn shaped the Arts and Crafts architecture of the next generation. Nesfield, by contrast, ran a small office, seems to have disliked the exigencies of professional practice, did not actively seek commissions in the same way and, when eventually able to do so, gave up architecture at the age of 46 to concentrate on painting until, four years later, a lifetime of heavy drinking caught up with him.

Magnolia Cottage and Stowford Cottage on the Crewe Hall Estate in Cheshire, 1865
Detail of the Golden Lodge to Kinmel Park on the North Wales coast in Clwyd, built in 1868 as part of a grand scheme of works that culminated in the remodelling of the main house in the first half of the 1870s. The ‘H’s stand for Hugh Robert Hughes, then-owner of the estate and heir to a copper-mining fortune, who engaged Nesfield to carry out the work. Note the trademark ‘Japanese pies’ and potted sunflowers.

As Andrew Saint asks, ‘Whose was this extraordinary, proud, quixotic, witty and melancholic temperament? […] Nesfield was an enigma. We know enough about him to discern ability amounting practically to genius, a career only half-fulfilled and a personality fraught with contradictions: high spirits vying with depression; bouts of industry alternating with lethargy; a strong sensuality coupled with lofty, snobbish standards of honour and behaviour; and a dedication to his calling as architect at seeming odds with his disdain for publicity or professional advancement. More knowledge might, or might not, help us to explain all this. The facts are that Nesfield had in extreme form the qualities of a certain type of mid-Victorian ‘art-architect’, coupled with the advantages and drawbacks or having been born with at least half of a silver spoon in his mouth’.

The clock tower and entrance to the service court and stable block at Cloverley Hall, Shropshire: the panels in relief surrounding the clock face and depicting the Signs of the Zodiac are shown in detail in the featured photograph at the top of this post.
The entrance front of Cloverley Hall, date unknown, but probably early 20th century: note the surviving clock tower over the gateway to the stables and service court visible to the left. (Historic England)
Brookside Cottages on Church Hill in Radwinter, Essex, one of a number of buildings by Nesfield put up in the village as part of a rebuilding effort following a devastating fire in 1874.

The mainstay of Nesfield’s practice was country house and associated domestic work – somewhat unfortunately for us, since many of his most important buildings fell victim to the downturn in the fortunes of large estates and the reaction against High Victorian taste after World War I. What survives has to be sought out and is not always readily accessible. The subject of this post is a rare exception – the bank that Nesfield built in 1873-1874 originally for the firm of Gibson, Tuke and Gibson on the east side of the Market Place in Saffron Walden. In 1868-1870, Nesfield had remodelled the medieval church at Radwinter (one of his few major ecclesiastical commissions) for the Rev’d John Frederick Watkinson Bullock, squire-parson there from 1865 to 1916, whose introductions appear to have broadened Nesfield’s range and given us one of his very few public secular buildings.

The clock tower of the service range at Hampton Manor, Hampton-in-Arden, Warwickshire, added by Nesfield in 1872 as part of his remodelling of an older house.
Cottages at the top of Church Hill in Radwinter, Essex – like Brookside Cottages pictured above, this range forms part of the rebuilding campaign initiated after the fire of 1874.

It is a commanding location and the massing of the bank, with its thick-set, tower-like proportions and expressive skyline, makes the best of it. But this is architecture intended to delight at close range as well as impress from a distance. As Saint notes, ‘It is the decoration of Nesfield’s architecture which is generally most startling. None of his building depends on ornament… [but] whenever he had the chance (and he must have had a silver tongue with his rich clients) he loved to break out into ornament; stamped leadwork, carved and moulded brickwork, stained glass, wrought iron finials, incised plasterwork, and even green bottle-bottoms stuck into external plastering. Among other Gothic Revivalists, only William Burges was as ornamental as Nesfield and Burges’s range of effects was stiffer and more limited. Where Nesfield got his ideas would take an essay to explore’. Note here the lovely bas-relief carvings of storks (Gibson’s emblem) in the spandrels of the main entrance, the crenellated hopper head, the leadwork parapet embossed with ‘pies’ (a favoured motif borrowed from the Japonaiserie of the Aesthetic Movement) and splendid wrought iron finial with its wind vane.

Detail of the entrance front at Bodrhyddan, Clwyd in Wales, added by Nesfield when he remodelled this originally largely Stuart house in 1874-1875.

Published by Edmund Harris

Heritage professional and architectural historian residing in Suffolk. All views expressed here are my own and do not represent my employer.

8 thoughts on “William Eden Nesfield (1835–1888)

  1. Very interested in the Nesfield article.

    Have you come across any of Nesfields’ drawings / plans for the works he undertook at Combe (now Coombe Abbey) near Coventry, that he undertook for the Earl of Craven in the 1860s ? Much of the work on the East wing was destroyed in the 1930s, but some of the south elevation remains.


    1. Yes! I did see a drawing somewhere, but annoyingly now can’t think for the life of me where that was. Huge shame that his work there was lost, but such ‘de-Victorianisation’ was very common during the inter-war period. The virulent reaction against Victorian taste had a lot to do with it, although I think it also stemmed from the fact that these houses had often become unmanageably big by that point and with labour no longer as cheap as it had been in the 19th century, they were simply too expensive to run.


      1. Edmund, thanks for the reply. I am not sure that John Gray (a local Coventry builder), who purchased Combe from the Cravens had a particular de-victorianism agenda, as he also removed a considerable amount of William Winde’s West and North Facades. He certainly seems to have been driven to scale back Combe significantly in an attempt to contain costs and move Combe from a Country House to a more modest family home. I will keep looking for those drawings !


  2. Hello both: we are doing some work at Coombe Abbey at the moment and I believe the Eden Nesfield drawings are held by the V&A. One aim is to develop a series of plans tracking the site’s development across its various incarnations, although surprisingly the Eden Nesfield iteration has been the hardest one to understand!


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